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Source by Wikipedia

A bus is a set of signal pathways that allow information to travel between components inside or outside of a computer.

Types of Bus

External bus or Expansion bus allows the CPU to talk to the other devices in the computer and vice versa. It is called that because it’s external to the CPU.
Address bus allows the CPU to talk to a device. It will select the particular memory address that the device is using and use the address bus to write to that particular address.
Data bus allows the device to send information back to the CPU

Types of Expansion Buses

ISA

Introduced by IBM, ISA orIndustry Standard Architecture was originally an 8-bit bus and later expanded to a 16-bit bus in 1984. When this bus was originally released it was a proprietary bus, which allowed only IBM to create peripherals and the actual interface. Later however in the early 1980’s, the bus was being created by other clone manufacturers.

16bit ISA Card

16bit ISA Slot

PCI

Introduced by Intel in 1992, PCI is short for Peripheral Component Interconnect and is a 32-bit or 64-bit expansion bus.
The PCI bus is the most popular expansion bus use in today’s computers.
PCI Card

PCI Slot

AGP

Introduced by Intel in 1997, AGP or Advanced Graphic Port is a 32-bit bus or 64-bit bus designed for the high demands of 3-D graphics. AGP has a direct line to the computers memory which allows 3-D elements to be stored in the system memory instead of the video memory.
AGP is one of the fastest expansion bus in use but it”s only for video or graphics environment.
AGP Card

AGP Slot

 

Expansion Bus Chart:

Type of Bus

Bits Wide

Clock Speed

Transfer Speed

ISA

8 bit

4.77 MHz

2.38MB/s

ISA

16 bit

8.33 MHz

8MB/s

PCI (Client)

64 bit

66MHz

266MB/s

AGP 1x

32 bit

66MHz

266MB/s

AGP 2x

32 bit

66MHz

533MB/s

AGP 4x

32 bit

66MHz

1,066MB/s

AGP 8x

32 bit

66MHz

2,133MB/s

AGP 8x (high-end)

64 bit

66MHz

4,266MB/s

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