Posted filed under CompTIA Network+.

Ethernet – Ethernet is the most widely-installed local area network ( LAN) technology. Specified in a standard, IEEE 802.3, Ethernet was originally developed by Xerox from an earlier specification called Alohanet (for the Palo Alto Research Center Aloha network) and then developed further by Xerox, DEC, and Intel. Early ethernet networks uses coaxial connections. The most common types currently use twisted pair cabling, however, fiber optic cabling is becoming much more common as standards and speeds increase. Below are some of the ethernet standards:

 

Connection Type Cable Type Connector Maximum Length Speed
10Base-T Category 3 or better UTP cable RJ-45 100 meters (328 ft) 10 mbps
100Base-TX Cat 5 twisted pair RJ-45 100 meters (328 ft) 100 mbps
100Base-FX Fiber Optic ST, SC 2000 meters 100 mbps
1000Base-T CAT5e or higher RJ-45 100 meters (328 ft) 1 gbps
1000Base-LX Laser over fiber SC Up to 5000 meters 1 gbps
1000Base-SX Short wavelength laser over fiber SC Up to 550 meters 1 gbps
1000Base-CX Twinax or short haul copper 9-Pin shielded D-subminiature connector,

or 8-pin ANSI fiber channel type 2 (HSSC) connector.

25 meters 1 gbps
10GBASE-SR Shortwave laser over multi-mode fiber optics LC, SC 300 meters 10 Gbps
10GBASE-LR Laser over single-mode fiber optics LC, SC 2000 meters 10 Gbps
10GBASE-ER Laser over either single or multi-mode fiber LC, SC 40 kilometers 10 Gbps
10GBASE-SW Shortwave laser over multi-mode fiber optics LC, SC 300 meters 10 Gbps
10GBASE-LW Shortwave laser over multi-mode fiber optics LC, SC 2000 meters 10 Gbps
10GBASE-EW Laser over either single or multi-mode fiber LC, SC 40 kilometers 10 Gbps
10GBASE-T Cat 5e (or higher) twisted pair RJ-45 100 meters (328 ft) 10 Gbps

 

CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) – In the early days of ethernet, when two hosts would send packets at the same time, a collision would occur. A standard had to be created that would have the hosts follow rules relating to when they could send data and when they could not. This standard is Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection, referred to as CSMA/CD. CSMA/CD forces computers to “listen” to the wire before sending in order to make sure that no other host on the wire is sending. If a collision is detected, both of the senders will send a jam signal over the Ethernet. This jam signal indicates to all other devices on the Ethernet segment that there has been a collision, and they should not send data onto the wire.

 

 

Bonding (AKA Link Aggregation, Port Trunking, EtherChannel, etc.) – Uses multiple network cables/ports in parallel to increase the link speed beyond the limits of any one single cable or port, and to increase the redundancy for higher availability.

 

**Source by wikipedia**

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