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Common IPv4 and IPv6 Routing Protocols


Link State routing protocols are one of the two main classes of routing protocols used in packet switching networks and includes protocols such as Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) and Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS). The link-state protocol is performed on every router on the network, where every routing node constructs a map of the connectivity to the network by showing which nodes are connected to each other. Each router calculates the next best logical hop from it to every possible known destination which forms the node’s routing table.


  • Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a dynamic routing protocol and is used on Internet Protocol (IP) based networks of all sizes – large to small. OSPF is an interior gateway protocol (IGP) that routes IP packets within a single routing domain and was designed to support variable-length subnet masking (VLSM) and Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) addressing.
  • Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) a link state protocol that operates by forwarding network topology information throughout a network of routers. Each router then independently builds a picture of the network’s topology based on the data received and the best topological path through the network to the destination. IS-IS is an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) typically used on larger networks.


 Distance-vector routing protocols are one of the two main classes of routing protocols used in packet switching networks and includes Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP). uses distance as one factor and the vector as the other to determine against the known routing tables to deliver data to source and destination locations. Routers using the distance-vector routing protocol will update other routers of topology changes periodically when a change is detected in the topology of a network.


  • Routing Information Protocol (RIPv1) RIP is a distance-vector routing protocol using “hop count” as a routing metric. The maximum number of hops allowed for RIP is 15 which effectively limits the size of networks that RIP can support.
  • Routing Information Protocol (RIPv2) improved upon RIPv1 by having the ability to include subnet information with its updates which allows for Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) support. The 30 second proactive broadcast has been eliminated in favor of multicast advertisements for its updates. The 15 hop count limit remains so that the devices are backwards compatible with RIPv1 devices.
  • Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the core routing protocol of the Internet. It maintains a table of IP networks and the data that designates where and how to reach each network through autonomous systems (AS). BGP makes routing decisions based on path, network policies and / or rule sets.
  • Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) a proprietary hybrid protocol from Cisco that is a distance vector routing protocol that functions like a link state routing protocol. EIGRP collects information and stores it in three tables; the Neighbor Table which stores the information about neighboring routers, the Topology Table which contains only the information and data regarding the routing tables from directly connected neighbors and the Routing table which stores the actual routes to all destinations.


**Source by wikipedia**

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