Traceroute – A command-line troubleshooting tool that enables you to view the route to a specified host. This will show how many hops the packets have to travel and how long it takes. In Windows operating systems, the command used is “tracert”.
IPCONFIG – This command is used to view network settings from a Windows computer command line. Below are the ipconfig switches that can be used at a command prompt.
- ipconfig /all will display all of your IP settings.
- ipconfig /renew forces the DHCP server, if available to renew a lease.
- ipconfig /release forces the release of a lease.
IFCONFIG – IFCONFIG is a Linux/Unix command line tool that is similar to IPCONFIG in Windows. Common uses for ifconfig include setting an interface’s IP address and netmask, and disabling or enabling a given interface. At boot time, many UNIX-like operating systems initialize their network interfaces with shell-scripts that call ifconfig. As an interactive tool, system administrators routinely use the utility to display and analyze network interface parameters.
PING – PING (Packet InterNet Groper) is a command-line utility used to verify connections between networked devices. PING uses ICMP echo requests that behave similarly to SONAR pings. The standard format for the command is ping ip_address/hostname. If successful, the ping command will return replies from the remote host with the time it took to receive the reply. If unsuccessful, you will likely recieve and error message. This is one of the most important tools for determining network connectivity between hosts.
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) – A host PC must have the MAC and IP addresses of a remote host in order to send data to that remote host, and it’s ARP that allows the local host to request the remost host to send the local host its MAC address through an ARP Request.
ARP PING (ARPING) – ARPING is a computer software tool that is used to discover hosts on a computer network. The program tests whether a given IP address is in use on the local network, and can get additional information about the device using that address. The arping tool is similar in function to ping, which probes hosts using the Internet Control Message Protocol at the Internet Layer (OSI Layer 3). Arping operates at the Link Layer (OSI Layer 2) using the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) for probing hosts on the local network (link) only, as ARP cannot be routed across gateways (routers). However, in networks employing repeaters that use proxy ARP, the arping response may be coming from such proxy hosts and not from the probed target.
NSLOOKUP – This is a command that queries a DNS server for machine name and address information. Originally written for Unix operating systems, this command is now available on Windows and other operating systems. To use nslookup, type “nslookup” followed by an IP address, a computer name, or a domain name. NSLOOKUP will return the name, all known IP addresses and all known aliases (which are just alternate names) for the identified machine. NSLOOKUP is a useful tool for troubleshooting DNS problems.
Hostname – The hostname command is used to show or set a computer’s host name and domain name. It is one of the most basic of the network administrative utilities. A host name is a name that is assigned to a host (i.e., a computer connected to the network) that uniquely identifies it on a network and thus allows it to be addressed without using its full IP address. Domain names are user-friendly substitutes for numeric IP addresses.
Dig (domain information groper) – Dig is a Linux/Unix tool for interrogating DNS name servers. It performs DNS lookups and displays the answers that are returned from the name server(s) that were queried.
Mtr – Mtr is a Linux command line tool that combines the functionality of the traceroute and ping programs in a single network diagnostic tool.
Route – The route command is used to display and manipulate a local routing table. Examples of its use include adding and deleting a static route. This tool is available in Unix, Linux and Windows.
NBTSTAT – Is a Windows utility used to troubleshoot connectivity problems between 2 computers communicating via NetBT, by displaying protocol statistics and current connections. NBTSTAT examines the contents of the NetBIOS name cache and gives MAC address.
NETSTAT – Is a Windows, Linux, and Unix command-line tool that displays network connections (both incoming and outgoing), routing tables, and a number of network interface statistics. It is used for finding problems in the network and to determine the amount of traffic on the network as a performance measurement.
**Source by wikipedia**
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