Ethernet – Ethernet is the most widely-installed local area network ( LAN) technology. Specified in a standard, IEEE 802.3, Ethernet was originally developed by Xerox from an earlier specification called Alohanet (for the Palo Alto Research Center Aloha network) and then developed further by Xerox, DEC, and Intel. Early ethernet networks uses coaxial connections. The most common types currently use twisted pair cabling, however, fiber optic cabling is becoming much more common as standards and speeds increase. Below are some of the ethernet standards:
|Connection Type||Cable Type||Connector||Maximum Length||Speed|
|10Base-T||Category 3 or better UTP cable||RJ-45||100 meters (328 ft)||10 mbps|
|100Base-TX||Cat 5 twisted pair||RJ-45||100 meters (328 ft)||100 mbps|
|100Base-FX||Fiber Optic||ST, SC||2000 meters||100 mbps|
|1000Base-T||CAT5e or higher||RJ-45||100 meters (328 ft)||1 gbps|
|1000Base-LX||Laser over fiber||SC||Up to 5000 meters||1 gbps|
|1000Base-SX||Short wavelength laser over fiber||SC||Up to 550 meters||1 gbps|
|1000Base-CX||Twinax or short haul copper||9-Pin shielded D-subminiature connector,|
or 8-pin ANSI fiber channel type 2 (HSSC) connector.
|25 meters||1 gbps|
|10GBASE-SR||Shortwave laser over multi-mode fiber optics||LC, SC||300 meters||10 Gbps|
|10GBASE-LR||Laser over single-mode fiber optics||LC, SC||2000 meters||10 Gbps|
|10GBASE-ER||Laser over either single or multi-mode fiber||LC, SC||40 kilometers||10 Gbps|
|10GBASE-SW||Shortwave laser over multi-mode fiber optics||LC, SC||300 meters||10 Gbps|
|10GBASE-LW||Shortwave laser over multi-mode fiber optics||LC, SC||2000 meters||10 Gbps|
|10GBASE-EW||Laser over either single or multi-mode fiber||LC, SC||40 kilometers||10 Gbps|
|10GBASE-T||Cat 5e (or higher) twisted pair||RJ-45||100 meters (328 ft)||10 Gbps|
CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) – In the early days of ethernet, when two hosts would send packets at the same time, a collision would occur. A standard had to be created that would have the hosts follow rules relating to when they could send data and when they could not. This standard is Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection, referred to as CSMA/CD. CSMA/CD forces computers to “listen” to the wire before sending in order to make sure that no other host on the wire is sending. If a collision is detected, both of the senders will send a jam signal over the Ethernet. This jam signal indicates to all other devices on the Ethernet segment that there has been a collision, and they should not send data onto the wire.
Bonding (AKA Link Aggregation, Port Trunking, EtherChannel, etc.) – Uses multiple network cables/ports in parallel to increase the link speed beyond the limits of any one single cable or port, and to increase the redundancy for higher availability.
**Source by wikipedia**
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