Posted filed under CompTIA Network+, MICROSOFT MTA NETWORKING.

Ethernet – Ethernet is the most widely-installed local area network ( LAN) technology. Specified in a standard, IEEE 802.3, Ethernet was originally developed by Xerox from an earlier specification called Alohanet (for the Palo Alto Research Center Aloha network) and then developed further by Xerox, DEC, and Intel. Early ethernet networks uses coaxial connections. The most common types currently use twisted pair cabling, however, fiber optic cabling is becoming much more common as standards and speeds increase. Below are some of the ethernet standards:


Connection TypeCable TypeConnectorMaximum LengthSpeed
10Base-TCategory 3 or better UTP cableRJ-45100 meters (328 ft)10 mbps
100Base-TXCat 5 twisted pairRJ-45100 meters (328 ft)100 mbps
100Base-FXFiber OpticST, SC2000 meters100 mbps
1000Base-TCAT5e or higherRJ-45100 meters (328 ft)1 gbps
1000Base-LXLaser over fiberSCUp to 5000 meters1 gbps
1000Base-SXShort wavelength laser over fiberSCUp to 550 meters1 gbps
1000Base-CXTwinax or short haul copper9-Pin shielded D-subminiature connector,

or 8-pin ANSI fiber channel type 2 (HSSC) connector.

25 meters1 gbps
10GBASE-SRShortwave laser over multi-mode fiber opticsLC, SC300 meters10 Gbps
10GBASE-LRLaser over single-mode fiber opticsLC, SC2000 meters10 Gbps
10GBASE-ERLaser over either single or multi-mode fiberLC, SC40 kilometers10 Gbps
10GBASE-SWShortwave laser over multi-mode fiber opticsLC, SC300 meters10 Gbps
10GBASE-LWShortwave laser over multi-mode fiber opticsLC, SC2000 meters10 Gbps
10GBASE-EWLaser over either single or multi-mode fiberLC, SC40 kilometers10 Gbps
10GBASE-TCat 5e (or higher) twisted pairRJ-45100 meters (328 ft)10 Gbps


CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) – In the early days of ethernet, when two hosts would send packets at the same time, a collision would occur. A standard had to be created that would have the hosts follow rules relating to when they could send data and when they could not. This standard is Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection, referred to as CSMA/CD. CSMA/CD forces computers to “listen” to the wire before sending in order to make sure that no other host on the wire is sending. If a collision is detected, both of the senders will send a jam signal over the Ethernet. This jam signal indicates to all other devices on the Ethernet segment that there has been a collision, and they should not send data onto the wire.



Bonding (AKA Link Aggregation, Port Trunking, EtherChannel, etc.) – Uses multiple network cables/ports in parallel to increase the link speed beyond the limits of any one single cable or port, and to increase the redundancy for higher availability.


**Source by wikipedia**

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