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    • ACL (Access Control List) – An ACL is a table in an operating system or network device (such as a router) that denies or allows access to resources.
      • MAC Filtering – This method controls access based on the unique MAC address assigned to all network devices.
      • IP Filtering – This method controls access based on the IP addresses (or a range of addresses) of network devices.
    • SSL VPN (Secure Sockets Layer virtual private network) – This is a VPN that runs on SSL and is accessible via https over a web browser. It allows users to establish secure remote access sessions from virtually any Internet connected browser. Unlike a traditional VPN, this method does not require the use of IPSec. The benefit of this solution is that it allows clients to access a corporate network from nearly anywhere which is not practical with a typical VPN.


    • VPN (Virtual Private Network) – A VPN is a network that uses a public telecommunication infrastructure, such as the Internet, to provide remote offices or individual users with secure access to their organization’s network. A VPN works by using the shared public infrastructure while maintaining privacy through security procedures and tunneling protocols such as the Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) or IPSec. In effect, the protocols, by encrypting data at the sending end and decrypting it at the receiving end, send the data through a “tunnel” that cannot be “entered” by data that is not properly encrypted.


CompTIA Network+ vpn



  • L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol) – L2TP is an extension of the Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) used on VPNs. L2TP merges the best features of two other tunneling protocols: PPTP from Microsoft and L2F from Cisco Systems. As a tunnelling protocol, L2TP does not include encryption, but is often used with IPsec provide VPN connections from remote users to a remote network.


  • IPSec (Internet Protocol Security) – IPsec is a protocol suite that ensures confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity of data communications across a public network by authenticating and encrypting each IP packet of a data stream. IPSEC is made of two different protocols: AH and ESP. AH (Authentication header) is responsible for authenticity and integrity, while ESP (Encapsulating Security payload) encrypts the payload. IPSec is often used in conjunction with L2TP on VPNs.


  • RAS (Remote Access Service) – RAS refers to any combination of hardware and software to enable remote access to a network. A RAS server is a specialized computer which aggregates multiple communication channels together. An example of this would be a server that dial-up users dial into. The term was originally coined by Microsoft during the Windows NT era and is now called Routing and Remote Access Service (RRAS).


  • RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol) – Originally released with Windows NT 4.0 Terminal Services, RDP 4.0 allowed users to connect to a computer and remotely control (AKA Shadow) it. With the release of Windows Vista and upcoming Windows Longhorn, version 6.0 will allow one to connect to specific applications rather than the entire desktop of the remote computer. Remote Desktop allows systems administrators to remotely connect to a user’s computer for technical support purposes, or connect to a server for maintenance and administration purposes. By default, RDP uses TCP port 3389.


  • PPPoE (Point to Point Protocol over Ethernet) – In the past, most internet users were connected to the internet via a serial modem using PPP, however, current technologies have replaced dial-up internet connections with DSL and cable, for example. In short, PPPoE is a network protocol for encapsulating PPP frames in Ethernet frames.


  • PPP (Point to Point Protocol) – Provides a standard means of encapsulating data packets sent over a single-channel WAN link. Specifically, PPP provides a method for connecting a personal computer to the Internet using a standard phone line and a modem using a serial connection (Dial-up). PPP replaced SLIP as the standard for dial-up connections as it supports more protocols than just TCP/IP.


  • VNC (Virtual Network Computing) – VNC makes it possible to interact with a computer from any computer or mobile device on the Internet. Unlike Microsoft’s RDP, VNC offers cross-platform support allowing remote control between different types of computers. Popular uses for this technology include remote technical support and accessing files on one’s work computer from one’s home computer, or vice versa.


  • ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) – ICA is a proprietary protocol for an application server system, designed by Citrix Systems. Products conforming to ICA are Citrix’s WinFrame, Citrix XenApp (formerly called MetaFrame/Presentation Server), and Citrix XenDesktop products. These permit ordinary Windows applications to be run on a Windows server, and for any supported client to gain access to those applications. Besides Windows, ICA is also supported on a number of Unix server platforms and can be used to deliver access to applications running on these platforms. There is a wide range of clients supported including Windows, Mac, Unix, Linux, and various Smartphones.





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