Incident Management is concerned with the rapid restoration of services and with minimization of impact to the business. In most but not all cases the Incident Management process is owned and executed by the Service Desk.
Within ITIL®, Incident Management consists of a number of basic activities or steps:
- Detection – The incident becomes known by any mechanism, e.g. user call, system alert, etc.
- Logging – Details of the incident are recorded in the incident management system.
- Classification – The incident is categorized according to predefined criteria for the purpose of facilitating diagnosis and prioritizing its handling relative to other incidents.
- Prioritization – The impact and urgency of the incident are determined and factored together to determine its relative priority among other incidents.
- Investigation and Initial Diagnosis – Additional details regarding the incident are gathered and used along with tools such as the Known Error Database to attempt resolution.
- Escalation – If necessary, the incident may be forwarded to the appropriate handling group.
- Resolution and Recovery – Service is restored and users are provided assistance to allow them to resume work.
- Closure – Successful resolution of the incident is verified with the user, the incident resolution details are recorded, and the incident is flagged as being closed in the incident management system.
Problem Management is concerned with the identification and correction of flaws or errors in the environment which cause incidents. Problem Management helps reduce and prevent incidents. Problem Management is broadly divided into two major sub-processes:
- Reactive Problem Management, which is charged with responding to problems as they arise in the environment, usually driven by the Incident Management process.
- Proactive Problem Management, which is charged with proactively seeking out improvements to services and infrastructure before incidents occur.
Problem Management uses techniques such as Kepner-Tregoe, Ishikawa diagramming, and Fault Tree Analysis to identify the root cause of incidents. Once the root cause of an incident is determined, Problem Management may issue a Request For Change to initiate action toward implementation of a permanent fix for the underlying cause or, if a permanent solution is not feasible, may assist in the development of a Work Around for use in restoring service and minimizing the impact of associated incidents.
The production and maintenance of the Known Error Database (KEDB) is one of the most important outputs of the Problem Management process. The Known Error Database is used by the Incident Management process to more rapidly resolve incidents.
Event Management is concerned with detection of events in the infrastructure and with selection of appropriate response actions. By facilitating early detection of incidents, Event Management helps reduce the number of incidents which impact users and can greatly improve the performance of the Incident Management process itself.
As described earlier, an Event is any change of state which has significance for the delivery of a service. As such, Event Management mainly focuses on IT detecting and addressing issues at the infrastructure level and is most commonly a largely automated process.
Events may be one of three basic types:
- Informational – No action is required. The event information is logged for potential future reference.
- Warning —An infrastructure item is approaching a predefined performance or capacity threshold which could cause an incident or require intervention.
- Exception—An infrastructure item has exceeded a threshold or is no longer operating within defined parameters. Intervention is required.
Service Request Fulfillment
Service Request Fulfillment is the process charged with assisting users in situations where no service degradation or interruption is involved. Service Request Fulfillment provides a means of addressing common user requests for non-incident support, new equipment, training, etc. Service Request Fulfillment frequently makes use of Standard Changes and automation to meet user requests more efficiently.
In much the same way that Event Management supports the Incident Management process by addressing incidents before they impact users, Service Request Fulfillment can reduce the load on the Incident Management process by providing a means of addressing non-incident related requests before they enter the Incident Management stream.
**Source by wikipedia**
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